Extinct Western Camel, Camelops hesternus
February 2009

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Cui, P. R. Ji, F. Ding, D. Qi, H. Gao, H. Meng, J. Uu, S. Hu, H. Zhang, 2007. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus): an evolutionary history of camelidae.BMC Genomics 8:241.

Dalquest, W., 1992. Problems in the nomenclature of North American Pleistocene camelids. Ann. Zool. Fennici 28:2291-299. Helsinki, Finland.

Dompierre, H. and C. Churcher, 1996. Premaxillary shape as an indicator of the diet of seven extinct late Cenozoic New World camels. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 16:141-148.

Faunmap Data Base, querried 2009. Camelops hesteruns. Illinois State Museum, Springfield Illinois.

Gauthier-Pilters, H. and A. Dagg, 1981. The Camel: Its Evolution, Ecology, Behavior, and Relationship to Man. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Honey, J. J. Harrison, D. Prothero, M. Stevens, 1998. Camelidae. In: C. Janis, K. Scott, L Jacobs, (eds.), Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America, Vol. 1. Terrestrial carnivores, ungulates and ungulate-like mammals, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

Janis, C. J. Theodor, B. Boisvert, 2002. Locomotor evolution in camels revisited a quantitative ananysis of pedal anatomy and the acquisition of the pacing gait. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22(1): 110-121.

Kurtén, B. and E. Anderson, 1980. Pleistocene mammals of North America. Columbia University Press, New York.

Lockley, M. and A. Hunt, 1995. Dinosaur tracks and other fossil footprints of the western United States. pp.265-267.

Morgan, G. and L. Rinehart, 2007. Late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) mammals from fissure deposits in the Jurassic Todilto Formation, White Mesa mine, Sandoval County, north-central New Mexico. New Mexico Geology, 29(2):39-51.

Rothschild, B. and L. Martin, 2003. Frequency of pathology in a large natural sample from Natural Trap Cave with special remarks on erosive disease in the Pleistocene. Reumatismo. 55(1):58-65.

Shaw, C., 2001. Rancho la Brea Camels. In: J. Harris (ed), Rancho La Brea: Death Trap and Treasure Trove. Terra 30(2): 33. Los Angeles Natural History Museum Foundation.

Webb, S. D., 1965. The osteology of Camelops. Bullettin of the Los Angeles County Museum, Science (1)1-54.

Webb, S. D., 1977. A history of savanna vertebrates in the new world, Part I. North America. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 8:355-380.

Webb, D. D., K. Randall, G. Jefferson, 2006. Extinct camels and llamas of Anza-Borrego. Jefferson, G. and L. Lindsay (eds) In: Fossil Treasures of the Anza-Borrego Desert: the Last Seven Million Years. Sunbelt Publications, San Diego, California. pp.293-310.

Whistler, D. and S. D. Webb, 2005. New goatlike camelid from the Late Pliocene of Tecopa Lake Basin, California. Contributions in Science, 503: 1-40. Los Angeles Country Museum of Natural History, Los Angeles, California.


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