Extinct Dwarf Pronghorn, Capromeryx minor
February 2009

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*How Do We Know This? Like living animals, fossil remains of once-living animals are
classified and grouped according to their relationships to each other and to their ancestors.

(Davis 2007) (Janis 2000) (Janis & Manning 1998) (Hernández Fernández & Vbra 2005) (Jiménez-Hidalgo 2004) (Morgan & Morgan 1995)

Describer (Date): Taylor 1911 Capromeryx minor

Kingdom: Animalia
    Phylum: Chordata
        Class: Mammalia
             Order: Artiodactyla (pigs, camels, deer, giraffes, cattle, and their kin)
                   Family: Antilocapridae (includes only one living member - the pronghorn, Antilocacapra americana
                   and many fossil taxa)
                          Subfamily: Antilocaprinae (have sheaths on horns that are shed and no 'burrs' on horn core shafts)
                              Tribe: Stockoceratini (all extinct genera)
                                    Genus: Capromeryx
                                          Species: Capromeryx minor

Taxonomic History and Nomenclature


*How Do We Know This? Scientists use knowledge of the earth's rocks, global
plate tectonic movements, and the chemical process of fossilization to make sense of
fossil distribution patterns and ancient habitats.

(Davis 2007) (Kurtén & Anderson 1980) (Murray 2006)

Prehistoric Distribution:

*How Do We Know This? Careful study of fossil bone or tooth anatomy yields much
exact information about placement and strength of muscles, tendons, ligaments,
nerves, and blood vessels. In rare cases, skin and hair impressions or actual skin
or hair is preserved. Body weight is more difficult to gauge because fat leaves
no impression on the skeleton.

(Janis & Manning 1998) (Murray 2006)

Estimated Body Weight: Estimated 10 kg (22 lb) (Murray 2006)
Estimated Height at Shoulder: 60 cm (24 in); similar in size to African gazelle (Gazella) (Murray 2006)
Tail Length: Short tail
Horns: Two horns are each forked with two prongs as in modern Pronghorn;
larger rear-ward tine only 10 cm.(3.9 in) with the front tine much shorter.

General Description
Teeth   Pelage   Sexual Dimorphism Other Physical Characteristics

*How Do We Know This? Since direct observation of a fossil animal's behavior
isn't possible, paleontologists use comparison and contrast with living animals for guidance.
Tracks can sometimes reveal further clues.

(Davis 2007) (Janis and Manning 1998) (Jarman 1974)

Social Life
Interspecies Interaction

*How Do We Know This? Clues to fossil mammals' diets come from teeth,skull shape,
from fossil dung and gut contents, from lab analysis of oxygen isotopes in bone and teeth,
and by looking at diets of similar modern animals.

(Janis & Manning 1998)

*How do We Know This? Isotope studies of elements present fossil bones and tusks
in microscopic quantities give information about timing of reproductive stress, and timing of nursing.
Clues to stages of development come from tooth replacement patterns and closure of sutures
in skull and limb bones.

 Mortality and Life Stages

*How do We Know This? Abnormalities in fossils bones may show
evidence of arthritis, cancer, nutritional stress, fractures and more.

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