African Elephant, Loxodonta africana
2008

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African elephant


TAXONOMY & NOMENCLATURE
(Blanc 2008) (Cutler 1985) (Eggert et al. 2002) (Eltringham 1991) (Grubb et al. 2000 ) (Gheerbrant et al. 1996, 2009) (ITIS) (Nikaido 2003) (Palombo and Villa 2001) (Poulakakis et al. 2006) (Roca et al. 2001) (Rohland et al 2007 2010) (Ross 1992) (Shoshani 1992, 2006 ) (Wilson & Reeder 1992 ) (Yang 1996)


Describer: Order established = Illiger (1811). Family describer = Gray (1821). Revised by Maglio (1973). The Asian elephant (Elephas) = Linnaeus (1758). African elephant (Loxodonta) = Cuvier (1825) L. africana = Blumenbach, (1797) and L. cyclotis = Matschie (1900)

Kingdom: Animalia
    Phylum: Chordata
        Class: Mammalia
             Order: Proboscidea
                  Family: Elephantidae
                      Subtribe: Elephantina
                            Genus: Elephas
                                  Species: Elephas maximus (Asian elephant)
                                       Subspecies: E. m. maximus (Sri Lankan Asian elephant)
                                       Subspecies: E. m. indicus (mainland Asian elephant)
                                       Subspecies: E. m. sumatranus (Sumatran Asian elephant)
                      Subtribe: Loxodontina
                            Genus: Loxodonta
                                  Species: Loxodonta africana (African bush or savannah elephant)                                        
                                  Species: Loxodonta cyclotis (African forest elephant)

Taxonomic History

Nomenclature:

Cultural History: (Ross 1992)

DISTRIBUTION & HABITAT
(Blanc 2003) (Blanc 2007) (Blanc 2008) (Estes 1991) (Grubb & Groves 2000) (Shoshani 1992) (Shoshani & Tassy 1996)

Distribution
 
Maps
click maps to see larger image.
present distribution Ancient and present distribution
   Present distribution
(Grubb et al. 2000)
Ancient and present distribution
(Shoshani & Tassy 1996)


Habitat

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(Chadwick 1992) (Eltringham 1991) (Estes1990) (Fowler 1993) (Grubb & Groves 2000)
(Heffner & Heffner 1980) (Mikota 1994) (Nowak 1999) (Shoshani 1992) (Vaughn et al. 2010) (West 2001)

Elephant head Elephant body
 Click on graphics to see larger image. From Tierpark-Berlin newsletter.

Body Weight: Body Length: Shoulder Height: General Skeleton Teeth Tusks Skin Trunk (Shoshani 1992) Feet Ears Glands Internal Organs Eyesight

BEHAVIOR & ECOLOGY
(Caloi 1992) (Estes 1991) (Estes 1993) (Eltringham 1982) (Moss 2000)


Activity Cycle Social Groups

       General         Hierarchy Play Aggression Communication

        Tactile         Vocalization         Olfaction/Scent Marking Locomotion Interspecies Interaction

DIET & FEEDING
(Shoshani 1992) (Estes 1991) (Eltringham 1982)


General Daily Food Intake

REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT
(Eltringham 1992) (Estes 1991) (Estes 1993) (Fowler 1993) (Moss 2000) (Sukumar 2003)

Courtship Musth Reproductive Rate: Gestation: Averages 22 months

Life Stages

        Birth         Infant (< 1 year old)         Development to Adulthood Longevity (Eltringham 1992) Mortality

DISEASES AND PATHOLOGY
(Eltringham 1992) (Mikota, Sargent & Ranglack 1994)


MANAGED CARE
(Olson & Schwammer 2001) (ISIS database) (Shoshani 1992)


CONSERVATION AND POPULATION STATUS
(Blanc 2008) (Chadwick 1992) (Chase & Griffin 2009) (Daniel 1992) (McCarthy 2010) (Martin 1992) (Tuttle 1995)

Population Status (Nowak, 1991) (Grubb & Groves, 2000)( Blanc 2008) (CITES database) Conservation Threats to survival
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