Black Rhino, Diceros bicornis
2003
(minor update 2013)

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TAXONOMY & NOMENCLATURE
(Amato et al., 1993) (Brown & Houlden, 2000) (Cooke, 1972) (du Toit, 1987) (Emslie, 2012) (Emslie & Brooks, 1999) (George et al., 1993) IRF, 2002) (Kuzmin 2009) (Prothero, 1993) (Prothero et al. 1986) (Steiner & Ryder 2011) (Rookmaaker, 1995)

Describer (Date): Linnaeus 1758 (Diceros bicornis)

Source for subspecies nomenclature below: IUCN African Rhino Specialist Group (see Emslie and Brooks, 1999).
                               
Kingdom: Animalia
    Phylum: Chordata
        Class: Mammalia
             Order: Perissodactyla
                Suborder: Ceratomorpha (rhinos and tapirs)
                    Family: Rhinocerotidae
                           Genus: Ceratotherium (white rhinos)
                           Genus: Dicerorhinus (Sumatran rhinos)
                           Genus: Rhinoceros (Javan and Indian rhinos)
                           Genus: Diceros
                                 Species: Diceros bicornis (black rhino)
                                        Subspecies/Ecotypes:
                                          D. b. bicornis (southwestern black rhino)
                                          D. b. longipes (western black rhino)
                                          D. b. michaeli (eastern black rhino)
                                          D. b. minor  (south central black rhino)

Taxonomy

Common Names Phylogeny

DISTRIBUTION & HABITAT
(Emslie, 2012) (Emslie & Brooks, 1999) (Harley et al. 2005)

Distribution
black rhino distribution map black rhino subspecies distribution map

Historic and present distribution,  from International Rhino Foundation

Distribution of subspecies, from (Emslie & Brooks, 1999)

Habitat

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(Emslie & Brooks, 1999) (Kingdon, 1997)


Body Weight: 1,000 - 1,800 kg (2200 - 3970 lbs)
Body Length (head/body): 2.9 - 3.75 m (114-148 in.)
Tail Length:  60 - 70 cm (24 - 28 in.)
Shoulder Height: 1.4 - 1.8 m (55 - 71 in.)

General Sexual Dimorphism Other Physical Characteristics

BEHAVIOR & ECOLOGY
(Estes, 1991)(Goddard, 1967)(Merz, 1991)(Schenkel & Schenkel-Hulliger, 1969)


Activity Cycle Social Groups

      General       Hierarchy       Territorial Behavior       Aggression Communication

      Displays/Visual Signs       Vocalization       Olfaction/Scent Marking Locomotion Interspecies Interaction

DIET & FEEDING
(Kingdon, 1997)(Merz, 1991)


REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT
(Bertschinger, 1995)(Estes, 1991)(Goddard, 1966 & 1967)
(Hillman-Smith & Groves, 1994)(Merz, 1991)
(Rookmaaker, 1998)(Schenkel & Schenkel-Hulliger, 1969)

Courtship Reproduction Gestation: 15-17 months in the wild; 15-18 months in captivity

Life Stages
     
        Birth          Infant (< 1 year old)          Immature          Adult Longevity (Rookmaaker, 1998) Mortality


MANAGED CARE
(McKeever, 2000)(Ramirez, 1993)(Rookmaaker, 1998)


POPULATION AND CONSERVATION STATUS
(Ashley et al., 1990) (Emslie, 2002) (Emslie, 2012) (Emslie & Brooks, 1999)
(Leader-Williams, 1992 )(Schenkel & Schenkel-Hulliger, 1969)

Population Status Conservation Threats to survival
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©2003 San Diego Zoo Global. Last update 2013. Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Global makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to library@sandiegozoo.org.

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