Bonobo, Pan paniscus
2009 (minor update April 2013)

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Bonobo mother and offspring
Photo courtesy of the Primate Gallery

TAXONOMY & NOMENCLATURE

(Boesch 2002) (Gagneux et al. 1999)(Goodman 2002) (Groves 1989)
(Kaessmann et al. 1999) (Prufer et al. 2012) (Soligo et al. 2007) (CSAC 2005) (Wildman et al. 2003) (Wilson & Reeder 2005)
(Won & Hey 2005) (Yu et al. 2003)


Describer (Date): Ernst Schwarz (1929) (Pan satyrus paniscus). Revue Zool. Africaine, 16:425, April 1 1929.
Given species name (Pan paniscus) by Harold Coolidge (1933). Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 18:1-57, Sept. 1933.

Kingdom:
Animalia
    Class: Mammalia
        Order: Primates
             Superfamily: Hominoidea
                    Family: Hominidae
                          Subfamily: Ponginae (Includes: orangutans)
                               Genus: Pongo
                          Subfamily:
Homininae  (Includes: gorillas, bonobos and chimpanzees, and humans)                       
                                Genus:
Gorilla
                                Genus: Pan 
                                     Species: Pan paniscus - bonobos
                                     Species: Pan troglodytes - chimpanzees
                                         Subspecies:
                                 Genus: Homo   (Includes modern humans and several extinct species)
                    Family: Hylobatidae (Includes gibbons and siamangs)

Taxonomy Nomenclature Phylogeny (Goodman 2003) (Soligo et al 2007) Hybridizations
DISTRIBUTION & HABITAT

(IUCN Redlist version 2009)



  • Found only in the central portion of Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo Basin), south of the Congo river. The common chimpanzee has much larger range.
  • Small populations within the Congo Basin are separated by rivers.
  • Potential range is estimated at approximately 500,000 km sq. (193,051 mi sq)
  • Range is discontinuous. Species absent or rare in many areas. Southern part of Congo Basin not well surveyed.
  • Found in lowland rain forest - both primary and secondary "regrowth" forests, but also in mosaic forest with savannas where they may even feed on grasses; recent studies show them entering swamp forests where they wade in waist-deep streams.
  • Share many ecological traits with common chimpanzees. Both are terrestrial and arboreal. Can utilize many plant resources.
  • Few field studies prior to 1970s. Studies in 1980s confirmed populations near towns of Befale, Djolu, Bokungu and Ikela and a 3,000 sq. km. area between the Yekokora and Lomako Rivers.
  • Based on evidence of nest building individuals, population densities of around 0.4/sq km (0.15/ sq mi) are estimated for Salonga National Park which may be similar to overall densities for all their range; some study area have higher estimates.
  • As late as 17th century this species may have ranged into northwestern Angola and as far south as the Quanza River.

 distribution map
Bonobo (Pan paniscus) Distribution
(Butynski 2001). Click map to see larger image.
Click here for IUCN map.


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

(Boesch 2002) (Cramer & Zihlman 1978) (Groves 1989) (Hakeem et al 2009) (Myers Thompson 2002) (Socha 1984) (de Waal 2001) (Zihlmann 1984, 1996)



BEHAVIOR & ECOLOGY

(Anderson et al 2002) (Boesch & Boesch-Achermann 2000) (Corballis 2002) (Enomoto 1990) (Goodall 1986) (Hohmann & Fruth 2002) (Idani 1995) (Kano 1992) (Kano et al 1996) (Kuroda 1989) (Matsuzawa 2000) (Palagi & Paoli 2008) (Parish 1993, 1996) (Pollick & de Waal 2004) (Pollick et al 2008) (Stevens et al 2008) (de Waal 1995, 1997, 2001) (Watts 1998) (White & Chapman 1994) (White and Waller 2008)



Activity Cycle

        Daily Pattern:
        General:
Social Group

        General:
        Hierarchy and bonding (Stevens et al 2008) (de Waal 1995, 1997) (Parish 1993, 1996)         Territorial Behavior Communication

      Gesture (Pollick et al 2008) (de Waal 2001)

 

       Sociosexual behavior (de Waal 1988, 1995, 1997, 2001) (Paoli et al 2006)         Vocalizations (Pollick et al 2008) Locomotion (D'Aout et al 2004) (Myers Thompson 2002)

Tool use (Ingmason 1996) (Hohmann & Fruth 2003)

Play (de Waal 1989) (Enomoto 1990) (Kano 1992) (Palagi & Paoli 2008)


DIET & FEEDING

(Badrian & Malenky 1984) (Bermejo et al 1994) (Kano 1992) (Kano & Mulavwa 1984)
(Myers Thompson 2002) (Mulavwa et at 2008)

REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT

(Ankel-Simmons 2000) (Furuichi & Hashimoto 2002, 2004) (Hashimoto & Furuichi 2006) (Jurke et al 2008) (Kano 1996) (Kuroda 1989) (Lee & Guhad 2001) (Reichert et al 2002) (Vervaecke et al 1999)


Courtship Reproduction Gestation
Birth Interval
Life Stages

        Infant
Birth -2 years

(Kuroda 1989)         Juvenile: 2 to 5 years (Kuroda 1989)         Adults: Sexually mature individuals Longevity Captive Breeding
MANAGED CARE

PATHOLOGY AND DISEASES

(Adams et al 1995) (Jones et al 2004) (Lee & Guhad 2001) (Nunn & Altizer 2006) (Whittier 2001)

POPULATION AND CONSERVATION STATUS

(André et al 2008) (Butynski 2001) (Dupain & Van Elsacker 2001) (Furuichi & Thompson 2008) (Grossmann et al 2008) (Myers Thompson 1997) (IUCN Redlist 2009)


Status Threats to Survival
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