Brown Bear, Ursus arctos
June 2010

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TAXONOMY & NOMENCLATURE
(Agnarsson et al 2010) (Bonn et al 2008) (ITIS 2010) (Krause et al 2008) (Leonard et al 2000) (Lindqvist et al 2010) (Yu et al 2007) (Pasitschniak-Arts 1993)

Describer (Date): Linnaeus 1758

Kingdom: Animalia
    Phylum: Chordata
        Class: Mammalia
             Order: Carnivora
                Suborder: Caniforma (Dog-like carnivores)
                    Family: Ursidae (Bears)
                            Genus: Ailuropoda (Giant Panda)
                             Genus: Helarctos (Sun Bear)
                             Genus: Melursus (Sloth Bear)
                             Genus: Tremarctos (Spectacled Bear)
                             Genus: Ursus(Bears)
                                       Species: Ursus maritimus (Polar Bear)
                                       Species: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear)
                                       Species: Ursus thibetanus (Asian Black Bear)
                                       Species: Ursus arctos (Brown Bear, Grizzly Bear)                                                     

Taxonomic History and Nomenclature Phylogeny (Krause 2008)(Yu et al 2007)

DISTRIBUTION & HABITAT
(McLellan et al 2008) (Pasitschniak-Arts 1993) (Rode et al 2006)

Distribution (McLellan et al 2008) Habitat:

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(Craighead 1979) (Garshelis 2009) (Kurt 1990) (Pasitschniak-Arts 1993) (Sacco and Van Valkenburgh 2004) (Schwartz et al 2003)

Body Weight: Male 130-550 kg (287-1213 lb); Female 80-250 kg (176-551 lb)
Head/Body Length: 1-2.8 m (3.3-9.2 ft)
Shoulder Height: Up to 1.5 m (5 ft)
Tail Length: 60-200 mm (2-8 in)

General Pelage Sexual Dimorphism Other Physical Characteristics

BEHAVIOR & ECOLOGY
(Craighead 1979) (Craighead et al 1995) (Garshelis 2009) (Huber & Roth 1997) (Kurt 1990) (McLellan & Hovey 2001) (McLoughlin 2002) (Murie 1985) (Pasitschniak-Arts 1993) (Servheen 1993) (Schwartz 2003) (Weber 1986) (Wilson & Mittermeir 2009)


Activity Cycle (Pasitschniak-Arts 1993) (Garshelis 2009) (Schwartz 2003)

Territory Size (McLellan & Hovey 2001) (Pasitschniak-Arts 1993)

Social Groups

      General       Hierarchy       Territorial Behavior       Aggression (Craighead et al 1995) (Pasitschniak-Arts 1993) Play (Herrero 1985) Communication

      Displays/Visual Signs        Vocalization (Pasitschniak-Arts 1993)       Olfaction/Scent Marking Hibernation and denning Locomotion (Craighead et al 1995) (Weber 1986) Interspecies Interaction (Murie 1985) (Podruzny et al 1999) (Mowat & Heard 2006)

DIET & FEEDING
(Craighead 1995) (Hilderbrand et al 1999) (Mattson & Merrill 2002) (Mowat & Heard 2006) (Murie 1985) (Sacco and Van Valkenburgh 2004) (White et al 1998) (Xu et al 2006) (Zager and Beecham 2006)


REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT
(Craighead et al 1995) (Kurt 1990) (Pasitschniak-Arts 1993) (Schoen 1999) (Schwartz et al 2003)

Courtship Reproduction (Craighead et al 1995) Gestation Life Stages
      Birth       Infant (< 1 year old)       Juvenile       Subadult       Adult Longevity Mortality (Pasitschniak-Arts 1993)

MANAGED CARE
(Huber 2010) (Itoh et al 2010) (Law & Reid 2010)


POPULATION AND CONSERVATION STATUS
(Federal Register 1975, 2007, 2010) (McLellan et al 2008) (Proctor et al 2005) (Servheen 1999)

Population Status Conservation (Herrero 1994) (McLellan et al 2008) (Servheen 1999) Threats to survival (McLellan et al 2008) (Proctor et al 2005)
Important Web Resources:

© 2010 San Diego Zoo Global. Last update June 2010. Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Global makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to library@sandiegozoo.org.

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