Chacoan Peccary, Catagonus wagneri
2001

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Chacoan peccary

TAXONOMY AND NOMENCLATURE
(Mares et al., 1989)(Mayer & Brandt, 1982)(Mayer & Wetzel, 1986)
(McKenna & Bell, 1997)(Nowak, 1999)(Redford & Eisenberg, 1992)
(Simpson, 1980)(Sowls, 1997)(Theimer & Keim, 1998)(Wetzel, 1977)
(Wetzel et al., 1975)(Wright, 1989)(Yahnke et al., 1997)



Describer (Date): C. Rusconi (1930). Las especies fósiles argentinas de pecaríes (Tayassuidae) y sus relaciones con las del Brasil y Norte América. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de "Bernardino Rivadavia," 36:121-241.

Kingdom: Animalia
     Phylum: Chordata
          Class:
Mammalia 
                Order:
Artiodactyla* (Even-toed hoofed animals: includes pigs, sheep goats, cattle, deer)
                       Suborder:
Suiformes
                               Family:
Hippopotamidae (Hippopotamus)
                               Family:
Camelidae (Camels)
                               Family: Suidae (Pigs) 
                               Family: Tayassuidae (Peccaries)
                                     Genus:
Tayassu (White-lipped peccary, collared peccary, javelina)
                                     Genus:
Catagonus (Roman-nosed peccary)
                                            Species:
C. wagneri

*New anatomical and DNA evidence on the relationship between Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates) and Cetacea (whales and dolphins) recently led to a merging of the two orders into a new group, Cetartiodactyla (Montgelard, 1997; reviewed in Kulemzina, 2009). As of October 2012, experts had not agreed on whether to define Cetartiodactyla as an official taxonomic order that would replace Artiodactyla and Cetacea. Some continue to list peccary in the order Artiodactyla (Franklin, 2011) or use the term Cetartiodactyla without defining it as an order (IUCN, 2008).

Nomenclature

Phylogeny
DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT
(Mayer & Brandt, 1982)(Mayer & Wetzel, 1986)(Nowak, 1999)(Oliver, 1993)(Redford & Eisenberg, 1992)(Sowls, 1997)(Taber, 1990)(Taber et al., 1993)(Taber et al., 1994)

 

Distribution:
  • Peccaries occur from the southwestern United States to central Argentina.
  • The Chacoan peccary is endemic to the generally hot and dry Gran Chaco of western Paraguay, northwestern Argentina, and southeastern Bolivia.
  • Distribution is fragmented, possibly due to intense hunting pressure following increased accessibility (i.e., development) of the Chaco.
distribution map              
  Chacoan Peccary distribution.
Adapted from www.d-maps.com
according to IUCN fact sheet
Click here for detailed distribution (IUCN)
Habitat
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(Herring, 1985)(Hess et al., 1985)(Mares et al., 1989)(Mayer & Brandt, 1982)
(Mayer & Wetzel, 1986)(Nowak, 1999)(Oliver, 1993)(Redford & Eisenberg, 1992)
(Sowls, 1997)(Taber et al., 1993)(Wetzel, 1977; Wright, 1993)

Body Weight: 29.5-40 kg (males) and 30.5-38.5 kg (females); 43.5 kg for a pregnant female.
Body Length: 96-116 cm (males) to 103-117 cm (females).
Shoulder Height: 52-69 cm (males) and 52.5-64 cm (females).

Sexual Dimorphism Pelage Other Physical Characteristics:
BEHAVIOR AND ECOLOGY
(Benirschke et al., 1995)(Handen & Benirschke, 1991)
(Mayer & Brandt, 1982)(Mayer & Wetzel, 1986)(Redford & Eisenberg, 1992)
(Sowls, 1997)(Taber et al., 1993)(Taber et al., 1994)
(Yahnke et al., 1997)

Activity Cycle

        Daily Pattern
Social Group

        General
        Territorial Behavior Play Aggression Communication

        Displays
        Vocalizations          Olfactory signals Interspecies Interaction
DIET AND FEEDING
(Benirschke & Heuschele, 1993)(Handen & Benirschke, 1991)
(Mayer & Brandt, 1982)(Mayer & Wetzel, 1986)(Nowak, 1999)(Oliver, 1993)
(Redford & Eisenberg, 1992)(Sowls, 1997)(Taber et al., 1993)(Taber et al., 1994)

REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT
(Benirschke & Heuschele, 1993)(Benirschke et al., 1990)(Brooks, 1992)
(Handen & Benirschke, 1991)(Hayssen et al., 1993)(Mayer & Brandt, 1982)
(Mayer & Wetzel, 1986)(Redford & Eisenberg, 1992)(Sowls, 1997)
(Taber, 1990; Taber et al., 1993)(Unger, 1999)(Wetzel, 1977)(Yahnke et al., 1997)

Courtship: Breeding occurs April-June. 

Reproductive rate:
females at Proyecto Taguá gave birth between 1.2 and 8.3 years of age; younger females (<3 years old) usually had smaller litters than older females. They have one litter a year.  

Gestation:
151 days.

Life Stages

        Birth
        Litter size: usually two or three, but varies from one to four.

        Infants
(<1 month of age):   Juveniles (1-12 months of age):   Young adults (1-2 years of age):   Adults (>2 years of age):   Longevity: not reported for wild animals; at least 10 years, 6 months in captivity.

Mortality
DISEASES AND PATHOLOGY
(Benirschke & Heuschele, 1993)(Benirschke et al., 1990)
(Benirschke et al., 1995)(Sowls, 1997)(Yahnke et al., 1997)

POPULATION AND CONSERVATION STATUS
(Baillie & Groombridge, 1996)(Kingswood et al., 1991)(Mayer & Brandt, 1982)
(Mayer & Wetzel, 1986)(Oliver, 1993)(Redford & Eisenberg, 1992)
(Sowls, 1997)(Taber et al., 1993)(Wijnstekers, 1995)


Population Status Conservation: Recommended Priority Actions
  1. create a national park where a large peccary population remains
  2. establish private reserves to protect other significant populations
  3. enforce hunting regulations
  4. use the Chacoan peccary as a "flagship species" to support environmental education programs for the Gran Chaco
  5. strengthen wildlife management efforts aimed at monitoring populations
  6. captive breeding
  7. translocate animals from areas being deforested to parks
  8. continue research projects directed at making effective management
Threats to Survival
MANAGED CARE
(Allen, 1992)(Benirschke & Heuschele, 1993)
(Kingswood & Brooks, 1991)(Shoemaker, 1997)(Unger, 1999)
© 2001 San Diego Zoo Global. Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Global makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to mbrooks@sandiegozoo.org.

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