Forest Buffalo, Syncerus caffer nanus
1999

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TAXONOMY AND NOMENCLATURE
(Gotch, 1995)(Grubb, 1972)(Kingdon, 1982, 1997)(Maglio & Cooke, 1978)
(McKenna & Bell, 1997)(Meester & Setzer, 1971)(Mloszewski, 1983)
(Sinclair, 1977)(Smithers, 1983)(Wilson & Reeder, 1993)


Describer (Date): A. Sparrman (1779). "A reference to the African buffalo." Kongl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl. (Stockholm), 40:79.

Kingdom: Animalia
    Phylum: Chordata
       Class: Mammalia
            Order: Artiodactyla* (Even-toed hoofed animals: includes pigs, sheep goats, cattle, deer)
               Suborder:Ruminantia
                 Family: Bovidae
                  Subfamily: Bovinae
                    Genus:Syncerus
                     Species:S. caffer
                      Subspecies: S. caffer caffer (Cape, or savanna, buffalo)
                                               S. caffer nanus (forest buffalo)


*New anatomical and DNA evidence on the relationship between Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates) and Cetacea (whales and dolphins) recently led to a merging of the two orders into a new group, Cetartiodactyla (Montgelard, 1997; reviewed in Kulemzina, 2009). As of October 2012, experts had not agreed on whether to define Cetartiodactyla as an official taxonomic order that would replace Artiodactyla and Cetacea. Some continue to list the forest buffalo in the order Artiodactyla (Franklin, 2011) or use the term Cetartiodactyla without defining it as an order (IUCN, 2008).


Taxonomy and Phylogeny

Nomenclature
DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT
(East, 1998)(Grimsdell, 1973)(Haltenorth & Diller, 1980)(Happold, 1987)
(Kingdon, 1997) (Meester & Setzer, 1971)(Mloszewski, 1983)(Prins, 1996)
(Sinclair, 1977)(Smithers, 1983)(Taylor, 1989)

Forrest Buffalo distribution.
Adapted from www.d-maps.com
according to IUCN fact sheet
Click here or on map for detailed distribution (IUCN)


Distribution:

 

 

Habitat:


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(Delany & Happold, 1979)(Estes, 1991)(Haltenorth & Diller, 1980)
(Happold, 1987)(Hofmann, 1973)(Kingdon, 1982, 1997)(Mloszewski, 1983)
(Pienaar, 1969)(Schaller, 1972)(Sinclair, 1977)(Smithers, 1983)

Sexual Dimorphism Pelage Other Physical Characteristics
BEHAVIOR
(Delany & Happold, 1979)(Estes, 1991)(Haltenorth & Diller, 1980)
(Happold, 1987)(Kingdon, 1982, 1997)(Mloszewski, 1983)(Pienaar, 1969)
(Prins, 1996)(Sinclair, 1977)(Smithers, 1983)(Taylor, 1989)
 
Activity Cycle

      Daily Pattern
Social Group Aggression Play Communication

      Displays
      Vocalizations       Olfactory signals
ECOLOGY AND INTERSPECIES INTERACTION
(Delany & Happold, 1979)(East, 1998)(Estes, 1991)(Happold, 1987)
(Kingdon, 1982)(Mloszewski, 1983)(Pienaar, 1969)(Prins, 1996)
(Prins & Lason, 1989)(Schaller, 1972)(Sinclair, 1977)(Smithers, 1983)

DIET AND FEEDING
(Haltenorth & Diller, 1980)(Happold, 1987)(Hofmann, 1973)
(Kingdon, 1997)(Mahaney & Hancock, 1990)(Mloszewski, 1983)
(Pienaar, 1969)(Prins, 1996)(Sinclair, 1977)(Smithers, 1983)

REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT
(Estes, 1991)(Grimsdell, 1973a, 1973b)(Hayssen et al., 1993)
(Kingdon, 1982)(Mloszewski, 1983)(Pienaar, 1969)(Prins, 1996)
(Sinclair, 1977)(Smithers, 1983)(Taylor, 1988)

Courtship Reproductive rate Gestation: 300-346 days

Life Stages

      Birth
      Litter size: usually one, but stillborn twins have been documented (Modha & Field, 1974).

      Infants (<1 year of age):         Juveniles (1-2 years of age):         Subadults (2-3 years of age):         Young adults (4-5 years of age):         Adults (>5 years of age): Longevity: 20-25 years in nature; 29 years, 6 months in captivity (Jones, 1993)
POPULATION AND CONSERVATION STATUS
(Baillie & Groombridge, 1996)(East, 1998)
(Kingdon, 1997)(Meester & Setzer, 1971)(Wijnstekers, 1995)
Threats to survival:
MANAGED CARE
(Dolan & Killmar, 1987)(Gingerich, 1998)
(International Species Information System, 1997)(Jones, 1999)

© 1999 San Diego Zoo Global. Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Global makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to library@sandiegozoo.org.

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