Giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis
November 2003

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TAXONOMY & NOMENCLATURE
(Colbert & Morales, 1990)(Gotch, 1995)
(Kingdon, 1979, 1997)(Lacky & LaRue, 1997)(MacClintock, 1973)

Describer (Date): Linnaeus, 1758

Kingdom: Animalia
    Phylum: Chordata
        Class: Mammalia
             Order: Artiodactyla* (Even-toed hoofed animals: includes pigs, sheep goats, cattle, deer)
                Suborder: Ruminantia
                    Family: Giraffidae

                          Genus: Okapi (Okapi)
 
                          Genus: Giraffa
                                  Species: Giraffa camelopardalis
                                        Subspecies: G. c. angolensis (Angolan Giraffe)
                                                            G. c. antiquiorum (Kordofan Giraffe)
                                                            G. c. camelopardalis (Nubian Giraffe)
                                                            G. c. giraffa (Southern/South African Giraffe)
                                                            G. c. peralta (Nigerian/West African Giraffe)
                                                            G. c. reticulata (Reticulated Giraffe)
                                                            G. c. rothschildi (Baringo/Rothschild's/Uganda Giraffe)
                                                            G. c. thornicrofti (Thornicroft's Giraffe)
                                                            G. c. tippelskirchi (Masai Giraffe)

*New anatomical and DNA evidence on the relationship between Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates) and Cetacea (whales and dolphins) recently led to a merging of the two orders into a new group, Cetartiodactyla (Montgelard, 1997; reviewed in Kulemzina, 2009). As of October 2012, experts had not agreed on whether to define Cetartiodactyla as an official taxonomic order that would replace Artiodactyla and Cetacea. Some continue to list giraffes in the order Artiodactyla (Franklin, 2011) or use the term Cetartiodactyla without defining it as an order (IUCN, 2008).

Taxonomy

Nomenclature Phylogeny

DISTRIBUTION & HABITAT
(Dagg, 1971)(East, 1998)(Estes, 1991)(Lacky & LaRue, 1997)

Giraffe distribution.
Adapted from www.d-maps.com
according to IUCN fact sheet
Click here or on map for detailed distribution (IUCN)


Distribution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Habitat:



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(Estes, 1991)(Kingdon, 1997)(MacClintock, 1973)

Height: Males up to 5.5 m (18 ft); females up to 4.5 m (15 ft)
Body Weight: Males 800 -1930 kg (1,764 - 4,255 lbs); females 550-1180 kg (1,212 - 2,601 lbs)
Head/Body Length: Males 3.8 - 4.7 m (12.5 - 15.4 ft)
Tail Length: 80 - 100 cm (31 - 39 in)

General Pelage Sexual Dimorphism Other Physical Characteristics

BEHAVIOR & ECOLOGY
(Apfelbach, 1990) (Coe, 1967) (Estes, 1991)
(Fennessy et al., 2001) (Guggisberg 1969) (Innis, 1958)
(Le Pendu et al., 2000) (Leuthold & Leuthold, 1978)

Activity Cycle Social Groups

      General       Hierarchy       Territory/Home Range       Aggression Play Communication

      Displays       Visual Signs       Vocalization       Olfaction/Scent Marking
Locomotion Interspecies Interaction

DIET & FEEDING
(Apfelbach, 1990)(Estes, 1991)(Innis, 1958)(Kingdon, 1997)
(Pellew, 1984)(MacClintock, 1973)(Spinage, 1968)


REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT
(Estes, 1991)(Foster & Dagg, 1972)(Innis, 1958)
(Lackey & LaRue, 1997)(Leuthold, 1979)(Leuthold & Leuthold, 1978)
(MacClintock, 1973)(Nowak, 1999)(Spinage, 1968)

Courtship Reproduction Gestation Life Stages

      Birth       Infant (< 1 year old)       Juvenile       Adult Longevity Mortality

DISEASES AND PATHOLOGY
(Krecek et al, 1990)(MacClintock, 1973)


MANAGED CARE
(Lackey & LaRue, 1997)(Bercovitch, et al., 2003)(Ritter, 1998)


POPULATION AND CONSERVATION STATUS
(East, 1998)(Lacky & LaRue, 1997)(WPZ, 2000)

Population Status
Conservation Threats to survival
Important Web Resources:

© 2003 San Diego Zoo Global. Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Global makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to mbrooks@sandiegozoo.org.

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