Jaguar, Panthera onca
September 2008

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TAXONOMY & NOMENCLATURE

(Barry 1987) (Eizirik et al. 2001) (Hemmer et al 2001)(Johnson et al. 1997) (Johnson & O'Brien. 2006) (Larson 1997) (Oesch 1969)(Pocock 1939) (Seymour 1989)
(Turner 1997) (Wozencraft 2005)


Describer (Date): Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae Per Regna Tria Naturae Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis Synonymis, Locis, 10th ed. Uppsala, L. Salvii, 1758.

Kingdom: Animalia
    Phylum: Chordata
        Class: Mammalia
             Order: Carnivora
                 Family: Felidae                    
                    Subfamily: Machairodontinae (extinct saber-toothed cats)
                     Subfamily: Felinae (cheetah, lynx, bobcat, caracal, puma, fishing cat, ocelot, margay, jaguarundi, serval, domestic cat)
                     Subfamily: Pantherinae (leopard, lion, tiger, jaguar, snow leopard, clouded leopard)
                          Genus: Panthera
                              Species: Panthera onca - jaguar
                              Species: Panthera leo - lion
                              Species: Panthera pardus - leopard
                              Species: Panthera tigris - tiger
                              Species: Panthera unica - snow leopard
                          Genus: Neofelis neofelis - clouded leopard                             

Taxonomic History and Nomenclature

Phylogeny



DISTRIBUTION & HABITAT

(Channell et al. 2000) (Crawshaw et al 1991) (Nowell et al. 1996)
(IUCN 2000, 2006) (McCain et al., 2008) (Sanderson et al., 2002)

Distribution

Jaguar distribution.
Adapted from www.d-maps.com
according to IUCN fact sheet
Click here or on map for detailed distribution (IUCN)

Habitat

 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

(Childs, 1998) (Hoogesteijn, et al. 1993; 1996) (Murie 1975) (Seymour 1989) (Turner 1997) (Wroe et al., 2004)

Body Weight: 57-113 kg (126-249 lb)
Body Length: 112-185 cm (44-73 in)
Tail Length: 45-75cm (18-30 in)

General

Pelage

jaguar leopard cheetah

Sexual Dimorphism

Other Physical Characteristics

jaguar : 4 3/4 in. wide puma : 3 1/2 in. wide

BEHAVIOR & ECOLOGY

(Azevedo & Murray 2007) (Emmons 1991) (Farrell & Sunquist 2000) (Harmsen et al 2009) (Maffei et al. 2004) (Mondolfi & Hoogesteijn 1986)
(Rabinowitz & Nottingham 1986) (Scognamillo et al. 2003) (Seymour 1989) (Soares et al. 2006) (Sunquist & Sunquist 2002)

General

Activity Cycle

Territory Size

Territorial Behavior

Aggression

Play

Communication

      Vocalization
      Olfaction/Scent Marking 

Locomotion

Interspecies Interaction

 



DIET & FEEDING

(Azevedo & Murray 2007) (Crawshaw & Quigley 1991) (Emmons 1991)
(Mondolfi & Hoogesteijn 1986) (Polisar et al 2003) (Seymour 1989) (Sunquist & Sunquist 2002)

Hunting strategies

Diet

 



REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT

(Hoogesteijn & Mondolfi 1993) (Quigley & Crawshaw 2001) (Seymour 1989)
(Slaughter et al. 1974) (Sunquist & Sunquist 2002) (Weigl 2005)

Courtship

Reproduction

Gestation

Life Stages

      Birth      Infant (< 1 year old)      Juvenile       Adult

Longevity

Mortality

 



MANAGED CARE

(Hemmer 1968) (Hsu 1962) (Pocock a & b 1908) (Seymour 1989)

Captive Breeding



POPULATION AND CONSERVATION STATUS

(Abbitt et al. 2000) (Channell & Lomolino 2000) (Leite et al. 2001)
(Nielsen et al. 2001) (Sanderson et al. 2007) (Soisalo, M. and S. Cavalcanti 2006)