Jaguar, Panthera onca
September 2008

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TAXONOMY & NOMENCLATURE

(Barry 1987) (Eizirik et al. 2001) (Hemmer et al 2001)(Johnson et al. 1997) (Johnson & O'Brien. 2006) (Larson 1997) (Oesch 1969)(Pocock 1939) (Seymour 1989)
(Turner 1997) (Wozencraft 2005)


Describer (Date): Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae Per Regna Tria Naturae Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis Synonymis, Locis, 10th ed. Uppsala, L. Salvii, 1758.

Kingdom: Animalia
    Phylum: Chordata
        Class: Mammalia
             Order: Carnivora
                 Family: Felidae                    
                    Subfamily: Machairodontinae (extinct saber-toothed cats)
                     Subfamily: Felinae (cheetah, lynx, bobcat, caracal, puma, fishing cat, ocelot, margay, jaguarundi, serval, domestic cat)
                     Subfamily: Pantherinae (leopard, lion, tiger, jaguar, snow leopard, clouded leopard)
                          Genus: Panthera
                              Species: Panthera onca - jaguar
                              Species: Panthera leo - lion
                              Species: Panthera pardus - leopard
                              Species: Panthera tigris - tiger
                              Species: Panthera unica - snow leopard
                          Genus: Neofelis neofelis - clouded leopard                             

Taxonomic History and Nomenclature

Phylogeny



DISTRIBUTION & HABITAT

(Channell et al. 2000) (Crawshaw et al 1991) (Nowell et al. 1996)
(IUCN 2000, 2006) (McCain et al., 2008) (Sanderson et al., 2002)

Distribution

distribution map

Habitat

 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

(Childs, 1998) (Hoogesteijn, et al. 1993; 1996) (Murie 1975) (Seymour 1989) (Turner 1997) (Wroe et al., 2004)

Body Weight: 57-113 kg (126-249 lb)
Body Length: 112-185 cm (44-73 in)
Tail Length: 45-75cm (18-30 in)

General

Pelage

jaguar leopard cheetah

Sexual Dimorphism

Other Physical Characteristics

jaguar : 4 3/4 in. wide puma : 3 1/2 in. wide

BEHAVIOR & ECOLOGY

(Azevedo & Murray 2007) (Emmons 1991) (Farrell & Sunquist 2000) (Harmsen et al 2009) (Maffei et al. 2004) (Mondolfi & Hoogesteijn 1986)
(Rabinowitz & Nottingham 1986) (Scognamillo et al. 2003) (Seymour 1989) (Soares et al. 2006) (Sunquist & Sunquist 2002)

General

Activity Cycle

Territory Size

Territorial Behavior

Aggression

Play

Communication

      Vocalization
      Olfaction/Scent Marking 

Locomotion

Interspecies Interaction

 



DIET & FEEDING

(Azevedo & Murray 2007) (Crawshaw & Quigley 1991) (Emmons 1991)
(Mondolfi & Hoogesteijn 1986) (Polisar et al 2003) (Seymour 1989) (Sunquist & Sunquist 2002)

Hunting strategies

Diet

 



REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT

(Hoogesteijn & Mondolfi 1993) (Quigley & Crawshaw 2001) (Seymour 1989)
(Slaughter et al. 1974) (Sunquist & Sunquist 2002) (Weigl 2005)

Courtship

Reproduction

Gestation

Life Stages

      Birth      Infant (< 1 year old)      Juvenile       Adult

Longevity

Mortality

 



DISEASES AND PATHOLOGY

(Camus et al 2004) (Choi et al. 2002) (Hope & Deem 2006) (Kolmstetter et al. 2000)
(McAloose et al. 2007) (Patton et al. 1986) (Seymour 1989)

Diseases in captive jaguars

Diseases in wild jaguars



MANAGED CARE

(Hemmer 1968) (Hsu 1962) (Pocock a & b 1908) (Seymour 1989)

Captive Breeding



POPULATION AND CONSERVATION STATUS

(Abbitt et al. 2000) (Channell & Lomolino 2000) (Leite et al. 2001)
(Nielsen et al. 2001) (Sanderson et al. 2007) (Soisalo, M. and S. Cavalcanti 2006)