Orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus, Pongo abelii
July 2003

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Orangutan


TAXONOMY & NOMENCLATURE
(Brandon-Jones et al. 2004) (Courtney et al. 1998) (Delgado & van Schaik. 2000) (Fleagle, 1999) (Grehan & Schwartz 2009) (Lehtonen et al. 2011) (Muir et al., 1998) (Muir et al. 2000) (Singleton et al. 2004) (Steiper 2005) (Tuttle, 2001) (Warren et al., 2001)
(Wilson & Reeder, 1993) (Xu & Arnason, 1996)


Describer (Date): Linnaeus, 1760 (Simia pygmaeus)

Kingdom:
Animalia
    Phylum: Chordata
        Class: Mammalia
             Order: Primates
                    Superfamily: Anthropoidea
                         Family: Hominidae (synonym: Pongidae)
                              Genus: Pongo
                                  Species: P.abelii, Sumatran Orangutan
                                  Species: P. pygmaeus, Bornean Orangutan
                                        Subspecies: Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus
                                                            Pongo pygmaeus morio
                                                            Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii


Taxonomy and Nomenclature
Evolutionary History

DISTRIBUTION & HABITAT
(Delgado & Van Schaik 2000) (Rijksen, and Meijaard, 1999) (Van Schaik et al., 1995)

Distribution Habitat

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(Delgado and van Shaik, 2000) (Groves, 1971) (Utami et al. 2002)


Body Weight: males, 87 kg (191 lbs); females, 37 kg (81.5 lbs)
Body Length: males, 970 mm (38 in.); females, 780 mm (30.7 in.)
Standing Height: males, 1366 mm (54 in.); females, 1149 mm (45 in.)

General Pelage Sexual Dimorphism Sub-specific Differences: May be due to individual rather than sub specific differences

BEHAVIOR & ECOLOGY
(Galdikas, 1995) (Kaplan and Rogers, 1994) (Rijksen, 1978) (Rodman, 1977)
(Tuttle, 1986) (Tuttle and Cortright, 1988 )


Activity Cycle Social Groups

      General       Hierarchy       Territorial Behavior Aggression Play Communication

      Displays       Visual Signs       Vocalization       Olfaction/Scent Marking Locomotion Interspecies Interaction Other Behaviors

DIET & FEEDING
(Fox et al. 2004)(Kaplan and Rogers, 1994) (Rijksen & Meijaard 1999) (Tuttle, 1986) (Wich et al. 2004)


REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT
(Benirschke, 2002) (Galdikas, 1981) (Galdikas, 1995) (Kaplan and Rogers, 1994)
(Leighton, et al., 1995) (Nadler, 1988) (Wich et al. 2004)


Reproduction Courtship Gestation: 227-301 days

Life Stages: Age ranges for life stages vary by author  

      Birth       Infant (0-2.5 years)       Juvenile (2.5 - 7 years)       Adolescent (7-10 years)       Sub adult Male (10-15 years)       Adult (Female: 8+ years; Males: 15 + years)
Longevity Mortality

DISEASES AND PATHOLOGY
(Rijksen, 1978)(Smits, et al., 1995)


MANAGED CARE
(Debnar, 2002) (Maple, 1980) (Smits et al., 1995)
Captive Breeding San Diego Zoological Society

CONSERVATION AND POPULATION STATUS
(Delgado & Van Schaik 2000)(Hutchins, et al., 2001) (Rijksen & Meijaard 1999) (Rijksen, 2001) (Singleton et al., 2004) (Singleton et al, 2008)

 

Population Status Conservation  Threats to survival
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