Pronghorn, Antilocapra americana
May 2009

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TAXONOMY & NOMENCLATURE
(Byers, 1997)(Davis 2007)(Hernandez Fernandez et al 2005) (Murray 2006)
(Nowak 1994)(O’Gara & Yoakum 2004)(Janis 2000)

Describer (Date): Ord (1815), as Antilocapra americana

Kingdom: Animalia
    Phylum: Chordata
        Class: Mammalia
             Order: Artiodactyla* (Even-toed hoofed animals: includes pigs, sheep goats, cattle, deer)
                Suborder:
                    Family: Antilocapridae
                        Subfamily: Antilocaprinae
                            Genus: Antilocapra
                                  Species: Antilocapra americana
                                        Subspecies: A. a. americana, A. a. mexicana, A. a. sonoriensis, A. a. peninsularis


*New anatomical and DNA evidence on the relationship between Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates) and Cetacea (whales and dolphins) recently led to a merging of the two orders into a new group, Cetartiodactyla (Montgelard, 1997; reviewed in Kulemzina, 2009). As of October 2012, experts had not agreed on whether to define Cetartiodactyla as an official taxonomic order that would replace Artiodactyla and Cetacea. Some continue to list pronghorn in the order Artiodactyla (Franklin, 2011) or use the term Cetartiodactyla without defining it as an order (IUCN, 2008).

Taxonomic History and Nomenclature

Phylogeny

 

Genetics



DISTRIBUTION & HABITAT
(Byers 1997) (O’Gara & Yoakum 2004)

Distribution

 

Habitat:






PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(Byers 1997) (O'Gara 1978) (O’Gara & Yoakum 2004)

 

 
Male
Female
Body Weight
42-59 kg (92-129 lb)
40-50 kg (87-111 lb)
Body Length
133.8-149.4 cm (52.7-58.8 in)
128.3-148.6 cm (50.5-58.5 in)
Tail Length
8.3-13.5 cm (3.3-5.3 in)
8.6-12.7 cm (3.4-5 in)
Data on body measurements from tables 20 and 22 in chapter 5 of O'Gara and Yoakum 2004. Values reported are means from study populations across western North America.

Coloration and Patterns

Horns

Mane

Vision

Feet

Sexual Dimorphism Other Physical Characteristics

BEHAVIOR & ECOLOGY
(Byers 1997) (O'Gara 1990) (O’Gara & Yoakum 2004)


Activity Cycle Territory Size
Social Groups
Breeding Systems Territorial Displays/Scent Marking
Visual Signs Vocalization Locomotion

DIET & FEEDING
(Byers 1997) (Hansen & Clark 1977) (O'Gara 1978) (O’Gara & Yoakum 2004)


REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT
(Byers 1997)(O'Gara 1978) (O’Gara & Yoakum 2004)

Courtship Reproduction Gestation
Life Stages
      Birth
Infant (< 1 year old) Juvenile Adult Longevity
 
POPULATION AND CONSERVATION STATUS
(O’Gara & Yoakum 2004)

Population Status Conservation Threats to survival
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