Przewalski's Horse, Equus ferus przewalski
April 2008
Minor updates January 2012, July 2013

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Przewalski's horse

TAXONOMY & NOMENCLATURE
(Agusti & Anton 2005) (Bennett & Hoffmann, 1999) (Bowling & Ruvinsky 2000) (Boyd, 1994) (Forstén 1988) (Froehlich 2002) (Groves, 2002) (Groves & Ryder 2000) (Hooker 2008) (Oakenfull et al 2000) (Ryder 2009) (Steiner & Ryder 2011) (Villa et al. 2001) (Wilson & Reeder, 2005)

Equus caballus Linnaeus, (1758). Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1:73.
Equus ferus Boddaert (1785).
Equus przewalskii Polyakov (1881).
Equus ferus przewalskii Groves (1986).

Kingdom: Animalia
    Phylum: Chordata
        Class:  Mammalia
             Order: Perissodactyla (Horses, rhinos, tapirs)
                  Family:  Equidae (Horses)
                        Genus:  Equus (only remaining genus in the family)
                               Species: Equus asinus (domestic donkey)
                               Species: Equus africanus (African wild ass)
                               Species: Equus hemionus (Asiatic wild ass / Onager)
                               Species: Equus kiang (Tibetan wild ass)
                               Species: Equus ferus (wild horse)
                                   Subspecies: Equus ferus przewalskii (Przewalski’s wild horse)
                               Species: Equus caballus (domestic horse)
                               Species: Equus grevyi (Grevy’s zebra)
                               Species: Equus burchellii (Plains / Burchellii’s zebra)
                               Species: Equus quagga (Quagga) EXTINCT
                               Species: Equus zebra (Mountain / Hartmann’s zebra)
                    Family: Tapiridae
                    Family: Rhinocerotidae

Taxonomy

Nomenclature

Equid Evolutionary History

Equid Cultural History



DISTRIBUTION & HABITAT
(Boyd & King 2011) (Ryder, 1990) (Boyd & Houpt, 1994) (Wakefield, et al., 2006)

Distribution
      Historic:

      Present

     Habitat

  • Mongolia
  • Kazakhstan
  • Russia
  • China
 

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(Boyd & Houpt, 1994) (Mohr, 1959) (Groves, 1994)

Weight: Males & females ~ 200-300 kg (440-660 lb.)

Height (at the withers / base of neck): Males: 1.42 m (4.65 ft); females: 1.37 m (4.5 ft) average 

Length: 2.1 m (7ft.) for both sexes average

Tail length: 90 cm (3 ft) average

General Description

Pelage



BEHAVIOR & ECOLOGY
(Boyd & Houpt, 1994) (Bouman, 1986) (Boyd 1988) (Mohr, 1971)

Activity Cycle (24-hour study of National Zoo Harem at Front Royal in 1988)

Feeding peaked at night (68% between 2000-2400)
Recumbency peaked at night (most from 0000-0400)

Locomotion

Social Group

Communication

          Vocalization

          Olfactory Signals

Aggression


DIET & FEEDING
(Boyd & Houpt, 1994) (Scheibe, et al 1998)

Daily food intake

Diet


REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT
(Boyd & Houpt, 1994) (Monfort, et al, 1991) (Asa, 2002) (National Geographic) (Klingel 1990)

Sexual Maturity

Estrus

Courtship

Gestation

Birth

Foals – Remain with dam for first 2 years

Reproductive rate

Longevity


MANAGED CARE
(Wakefield, et al., 2006) (Boyd & Houpt, 1994) (Robert, 2005)

Captive Breeding

Health concerns


POPULATION AND CONSERVATION STATUS
(Boyd & Houpt 2004) (Boyd & King 2011) (Gato et al. 2011) (Wakefield 2006) (Ryder1993)(Moehlman 2005) (Robert 2005) (Breining 2006) (Zimmerman 2005)

Causes Leading to Extinction in the Wild (Boyd & Houpt 2004) (Boyd & King 2011)

Current Population Status

Conservation

Semi-Reserves

Reintroduction Projects


Important Web Resources


© 2008 San Diego Zoo Global. Minor updates January 2012, July 2013. Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Global makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to library@sandiegozoo.org.

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