Two-toed Sloth, Choloepus didactylus & Choloepus hoffmanni
March 2009

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SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adam, P, 1999 Choloepus didactylus, Mammalian Species No. 621 pp1-8 American Society of Mammalogists

Aiello, A. 1985 Sloth hair: unanswered questions In Montgomery, GG ed., The evolution and ecology of armadillos, sloths, and vermilinguas Chicago : Smithsonian Institution Press, pp 213-218

Anderson, R.P., Hanley, C.O., 2001 A new species of three-toed sloth (Mammalia: Xenarthra from Panama, with a review of the genus Bradypus. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 114: 1-33.

Aguilar, J.M. and da Fonseca, G.A.B., 2008. Conservation status of the Xenarthra In Vizcaino, S.F and Loughry, W.J., The Biology of the Xenarthra. Gainesville : University Press of Florida pp 215-231.

Barros, M.C., Sampaio, I and Schneider, H. 2008 Novel 12S mtDNA findings in sloths (Pilosa, Folivora) and anteaters (Pilosa, Vermilingua) suggest a true case of long branch attraction. Genetics and Molecular biology. 31 (3) 793-799.

Britton, S.W. 1941. Form and Function in the Sloth, Quarterly Review of Biology. Vol 16(1) 13-34 and Vol 16(2) 190-207

Dereure J, Barnabé C, Vié JC, Madélenat F, Raccurt C. 2001 Trypanosomatidae from wild mammals in the neotropical rainforest of French Guiana. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 95(6):623-5.

Delsuc, F. and Douzery, E. 2008 Recent advances and future prospects in xenarthran molecular phylogenetics In Vizcaino, S.F. and Loughry, W.H. (eds) The Biology of the Xenarthra. Gainesville : University Press of Florida pp 11-36.

De Stefani Munao Diniz, L. and Oliveira, P.M.A. 1999. Clinical problems of sloths (Bradypus sp and Choloepus sp) in captivity. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 30(1): 76 - 80

DiGiusto, Christina Guley, 1993 An ethogram and time budget of Hoffmann’s two-toed sloth, Choloepus Hoffmanni. M.S. Thesis, State Univ. N.Y. Coll. Environ. Sci. & For.; 139p.

Diniz LS, Oliveira PM. 1999. Clinical problems of sloths (Bradypus sp. and Choloepus sp.) in captivity. J Zoo Wildl Med. Mar;30(1):76-80.

Eisenberg & Maliniak, 1985 Maintenance and reproduction of the two-toed sloth Choloepus didactylus in captivity. In Montgomery, G.G. (ed) The evolution and ecology of armadillos, sloths and vermilinguas, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press pp 327-331

Emmons, L.H. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals, A field guide 1990. Chicago: University of Chicago Press pp. 35 – 38.

Gardner, A.L. 2005. Order Pilosa. In: D.E. Wilson & D.M. Reeder (eds) Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomic and geographic reference. Third Edition. pp: 100–103. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Gaudin, TJ and McDonald, HG 2008 Morphology-based investigations of the phylogenetic relationships among extant and fossil xenarthrans In. Vizcaino, S.F. and Loughry, W.H. (eds) 2008. The Biology of the Xenarthra. Gainesville : University Press of Florida. Pp 24-36.

Gilmore, D.P., Duarte, D.P.F. and Da Costa, C.P. 2008. The physiology of two- and three-toed sloths In Vizcaino, S.F. and Loughry, W.J. (eds) The Biology of the Xenarthra. Gainesville : University Press of Florida, pp 130-

Gilmore, D.P., Da-Costa, C.P. and Duarte, D.P.F. 2000 An update on the physiology of two- and three-toed sloths, Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research (33) 129-146.

Goffart, M. 1971, Function and form in the sloth. Oxford : Pergamon Press

Grabowski, N.T. et al 2002. Comparison of major and minor milk constituents of a milk sample from the two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) in early lactation to common rearing formulae. Der Zoologische Garten 3:177-88.

Kawata, K, 1994 Behavior of the Hoffmann’s sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni in captivity. Zoologische Garten, 64(1) 9-24

McNab, B.K. 1985. Energetics, population biology, and distribution of Xenarthrans, living and extinct. In : Montgomery, G.G. ed. The evolution and ecology of armadillos, sloths and vermilinguas. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press pp 219-232

Marques, s. et al, 2002 Brazilian Distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), a Common Parasite of Sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra) Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz Vol. 97(8): 1141-1146, December

Marvin, H.N. and Shook, B.R. 1963 Hematological studies on the two-toed sloth, Choloepus didactylus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology V 8 (2) pp 187-189

Mendel, F.C, Piggins D, Fish, D.R.,1985 Vision of the two-toed sloths (Choloepus) Journal of Mammalogy, 66 (1): 197-200.

Mendel, F.C. 1981 Foot of two-toed sloths: its anatomy and potential uses relative to size of support. Journal of Morphology, 170(3): 357-372.

Mendel, Frank C. 1981 The hand of two-toed sloths (Choloepus): its anatomy and potential uses relative to size of support. Journal of Morphology, 169(1): 1-19. July 1981.

Mendel, Frank C. 1981 Use of hands and feet of two-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni) during climbing and terrestrial locomotion. Journal of Mammalogy, 62(2): 413-421. 21 May 1981.

Meritt, M. & members of the Edentate Specialist Group 2006. Choloepus hoffmanni. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org

Meritt D.A. 1973. Edentate diets II Two-toed sloths Laboratory Animal Science, 23(4): 543-545.

Merritt D.A. 1985 The two-toed Hoffman’s sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni In Montgomery, G.G. ed. The evolution and ecology of armadillos, sloths and vermilinguas. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press pp 333-41

Moeller, W. 1990 Modern Xenarthrans : Sloths (suborder Pilosa) In Grzimek, Bernhard (ed.). Grzimek’s Encyclopedia of Mammals Vol. 2. New York; McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.,1990 pp. 597 – 612.

Montgomery, G. G., and Sunquist, M.E. 1978 Habitat selection and use by two- and three-toed sloths. In Montgomery, G.G. ed., The ecology of arboreal folivores. Montgomery, Washington, DC : Smithsonian Institution Press pp. 329 - 359.

Montgomery, G.G., and Sunquist, M.E. 1974. Contact-distress calls of young sloths. J. Mammalogy, 55(1): 211-213.

Moore, T.A. and Lamberski, N. 2001 Retrospective study of morbidity and mortality in the two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni and Choloepus didactylus) in North America; pp 314-320 Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, the American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians, the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians, the National Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians Joint conference. Orlando, Florida

Naish, D. 2005 Fossils Explained 51: Sloths, Geology Today Vol 21, No. 6, November-December: 232-238.

Nowak, R. M. 1999. Order Xenarthra, Walker’s Mammals of the World Vol.2. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp.147 – 154.

Parra, R. 1978.. Comparison of foregut and hindgut fermentation in herbivores. In Montgomery, GG, ed, The Ecology of Arboreal Folivores. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press. Pp 205-229.

Partridge, J. 1991 The two-toed sloth. International Zoo Yearbook 38 (4) 23-28.

Ramprashad, F. et al 1985. Functional cochlear morphology of the two-toed sloth (Choloepus sp) In Montgomery, G.G. ed. The evolution and ecology of armadillos, sloths and vermilinguas. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press pp 199-211

Sunquist, M.E., and Montgomery, G.G. 1973. Activity patterns and rates of movement of two-toed and three-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni and Bradypus infuscatus), J. of Mammalogy, Vol 54 (4) pp 946-954.

Taube, E, Keravec, Joel; Vie, Jean-Christophe; Duplantier, Jean-Marc 2001. Reproductive biology and postnatal development in sloths, Bradypus and Choloepus: review with original data from the field (French guiana) and from captivity. Mammal Review, 31(3): 173-188.

Taube, E; Vie, Jean-Christophe; Fournier, Pascal; Genty, Christophe; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Vie J-C 1999. Distribution of two sympatric species of sloths (Choloepus didactylus and Bradypus tridactylus) along the Sinnamary River, French Guiana. Biotropica, 31(4): 686-691.

Veselovsky, Z. 1966. A contribution to the knowledge of the reproduction and grown of the two-toed sloth, Choloepus didactylus, at Prague Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook, 6, 147-153

Vizcaino, S.F. and Loughry, W.H. (eds) 2008. The Biology of the Xenarthra. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. 370 pp.

Waage, J.K., and Best, R.C. 1985. Arthropod associates of sloths In Montgomery, G.G. (ed)., The ecology of arboreal folivores Montgomery, Washington, DC : Smithsonian Institution Press pp. 297-301

Wallace, C. and Oppenheim, Y.C. 1996. Hematology and serum chemistry profiles of captive Hoffman’s two-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni) Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 27(3).

Wetzel, R.M. 1982. Systematics, distribution, ecology, and conservation of South American edentates. In: M.A. Mares & H.H. Genoways (eds) Mammalian Biology in South America pp: 345–375. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh.

Wilson, D. E. and D. M. Reeder (eds.), 2005 Mammal Species of the World, a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Third edition, V.1 Baltimore:.John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. pp. 100 – 101.

Wilson, Steve 1988, Captive Management of two-toed sloths. Thylacinus, 13(1): 4-9. 1988.

Wujek, Daniel E.; Joan M. Cocuzza 1986. Morphology of hair of two- and three-toed sloths (Edentata, Bradypodidae) Revista de Biologia Tropical, 34(2): 243-246. 1986.

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