White-fronted Bee-eater, Merops bullockoides
March 2010

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TAXONOMY & NOMENCLATURE
(Clarke et al 2009) (Fry 1969, 1984, 2001) (Hackett et al 2008) (Marks et al 2007) (Price & Emerson 1977) (Sibley & Ahlquist 1990) (Sibley & Monroe 1990) (ITIS 2010)


Describer (Date): Smith, 1834. White-fronted Bee-eater.

Kingdom: Animalia
    Phylum: Chordata
        Class: Aves
             Order: Coraciiformes (bee-eaters, hornbills, rollers, hoopoes, kingfishers and others)
                    Family: Meropidae - Bee-eaters
                           Genus: Meropogon
                           Genus: Nyctyornis
                           Genus: Merops - 22 species (Marks 2007)
                                  Species: Merops bullockoides - White-fronted Bee-eater
                                  Species: Merops nubicus - Carmine Bee-eater
                                             Subspecies: Merops nubicus nubicus - Northern Carmine Bee-eater
                                             Subspecies: Merops nubicus nubicoides - Southern Carmine Bee-eater

Taxonomic History and Nomenclature Phylogeny

DISTRIBUTION & HABITAT
(Emlen 1990) (Fry 1984, 2001) (Hegner et al 1982) (IUCN 2008)

Distribution



Habitat:

 

 

 

 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(Fry 1984,1992, 2001)

Body Weight: Male 28-38 g (0.1-1.3 oz); female 31-35 g (1.1-1.2 oz)
Body Length: 21.5-23.5 cm (8.5-9.5 in)
Wing Length: Male 111-120 mm (4.4-4.7 in); female 110-121mm (4.3-4.8)

General Sexual Dimorphism Other Physical Characteristics

BEHAVIOR & ECOLOGY

(BirdLife International 2009) (Casas-Crivillé & Valera 2004) (Emlen 1981, 1990) (Fry 1984, 1992, 2001)(Hegner & Emlen 1987) (Lessells 1990) (Wrege & Emlen 1994)

Activity Cycle Social Structure Territory/Range Size Territorial Behavior Aggression (Fry 1984) Communication (Fry 1984, 1992, 2001)

      Displays       Vocalizations Locomotion Dispersal and Migration Interspecies Interaction

DIET & FEEDING
(Hegner et al 1982) (Fry 1984)


REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT
(Emlen 1990, 1991) (Emlen & Wrege 1988, 1991) (Emlen et al 1991) (Fry 2001) (Ryan 2009) (Wrege & Emlen 1991, 1994)

Social/reproductive system Courtship (Wrege & Emlen 1994) Nesting (Emlen 1990) (Fry 1984, 1992) Egg Laying Life Stages
      Eggs (Fry 1984)       Nestlings       Young       Adults Longevity Mortality (Fry 1984) (Wrege & Emlen 1991)

MANAGED CARE
(Gungle 2001)


POPULATION AND CONSERVATION STATUS
( IUCN Redlist 2009) (Fry 2001)

Population Status Conservation Threats to survival
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