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Wade CM, et al, & Ryder OA. 2009. Genome sequence, comparative analysis, and population genetics of the domestic horse. Science 326(6):865-867. doi:10.1126/scinece.1178158 [PDF]

Walker LA, Cornell L, Dahl KD, Czekala NM, Dargen CM, Joseph B, Hsueh AJW, Lasley BL. 1988. Urinary concentrations of ovarian steroid hormone metabolites and bioactive follicle-stimulating hormone in killer whales (Orcinus orchus) during ovarian cycles and pregnancy. Biology of Reproduction 39:1013-1020. [PDF]

Walker JA, Konkel MK, Ullmer B, Monceaux CP, Ryder OA, Hubley R, Smit AF, Batzer MA. 2012. Orangutan Alu quiescence reveals possible source element: support for ancient backseat drivers. Mobile DNA 2012 3(1):8. doi:10.1186/1759-8753-3-8. [PDF]

Wallace K, Hare VJ. 1997. Enrichment idea? Propose it!. Shape of Enrichment 6(1):10-12.

Wallace M. 2014. California condor recovery: a work in progress. In: Lamont M, International Symposium on Breeding Birds in Captivity, eds. Conservation through aviculture: ISBBC 2007. Proceedings of the IV International Symposium on Breeding Birds in Captivity; 2007 September 12-16; Toronto, Ontario, Candada. Surrey (BC): Hancock House. p 471-476.

Wallace MP. 1990. The California condor: current efforts for its recovery. Endangered Species Update 8(1):32-35.

Wallace MP. 1991. Methods and strategies for the release of California Condors to the wild. In: AAZPA Annual Conference Proceedings; 1991. p. 121-128.

Wallace MP. 1993. California condor status report. Vulture News 28:8-10.

Wallace MP. 1994. Control of behavioral development in the context of reintroduction programs for birds. Zoo Biology 13(5):491-499. doi: 10.1002/zoo.1430130511.

Wallace MP. 2000. Retaining natural behaviour in captivity for re-introduction programmes. In: Gosling LM, Sutherland WJ, eds. Behaviour and conservation. Cambridge: Cambrigde University Press. p. 300-314. [PDF]

Wallace MP. 2001. Condors. In: Bell CE, ed. Encyclopedia of the world's zoos. Vol. 1. Ann Arbor: Routledge. p. 89-93.

Wallace MP, Alberts AC. 2005. Reintroduction of the California condor to Baja California, Mexico. Re-introduction News 24: 27-28.[PDF]

Wallace MP, Clark M, Vargas J, Porras MC. 2007. Release of puppet-reared California Condors in Baja California, an evaluation of a modified rearing technique. In: ee A, Hall LS, eds. California condors in the 21st century. Cambridge, MA: Nuttal Ornithological Club and Washington, D.C.: American Ornithologists' Union. pp. 227-242.

Wallace MP, Fuller M, Wiley J. 1994. Patagial transmitters for large vultures and condors. In: Chancellor RD, Meyburg B-U, eds. Raptor conservation today. Berlin: World Working Group on Birds of Prey. pp. 381-387.

Wallace MP, Toone W. 1992. Captive management for the long-term survival of the California condor. In: McCullough DR, Barrett RH, eds. Wildlife 2001: populations. London: Elsevier Applied Science. pp. 766-744. [PDF]

Wallace MP, Temple SA. 1988. Releasing captive-reared Andean condors to the wild. Journal of Wildlife Management 51(3):541-550. [PDF]

Wan S-K, Castro AE, Heuschele WP, Ramsey EC. 1988. Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay for the detection of antibodies to the alcelahine herpesvirus of malignant catarrhal fever in exotic ruminants. American Journal of Veterinary Research 49(2):164-168. [PDF]

Wang E, Ding Y-C, Flodman P, Kidd JR, Kidd KK, Grady DL, Ryder OA, Spence MA, Swanson JM, Moyzis RK. 2004. The genetic architecture of selection at the human dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene locus. American Journal of Human Genetics 74(5):931-944. [PDF]

Wang Y, Lance VA, Nielsen PF, Conlon JM. 1999. Neuroendocrine peptides (insulin, pancreatic polypeptide, neuropeptide Y, galanin, somatostatin, substance P, and neuropeptide gamma) from the desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii. Peptides 20(6):713-722.

Wang Y, Nielsen PF, Youson JH, Potter IC, Lance VA, Conlon JM. 1999. Molecular evolution of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine: primary structure of PYY from the lampreys Geotria australis and Lampetra fluviatilis, bichir python and desert tortoise. Regulatory Peptides 79:103-108. [PDF]

Wasser S, Poole J, Lee P, Lindsay K, Morgan B, et al. 2010. Elephants, ivory, and trade. Science 327(5971):1331-1332. doi:10.1126/science.1187811

Watkins PA, Moser AB, Toomer CB, Steinberg SJ, Ryder OA, et al. 2010. Identification of differences in human and great ape phytanic acid metabolism that could influence gene expression profiles and physiological functions. BML Physiology 2010:19:1-10. doi:10.1186/1472-6793-10-19

Watkins PA, Moser AB, Toomer CB, Steinberg SJ, Moser HW, Karaman MW, Ramaswamy K, Siegmund KD, Lee DR, Ely JJ, Ryder OA, Hacia JG. 2010. Identification of differences in human and great ape phytanic acid metabolism that could influence gene expression profiles and physiological functions. BML Physiology 2010:10-19. [PDF]

Weber DS, Van Coeverden de Groot PJ, Schrenzel MD, Perez DA, Thomas S, et al. 2013. Low MHC variation in the polar bear: Implications in the face of Arctic warming? Animal Conservation 16(6):671-683. doi:10.1111/acv.12045

Weiman S. 2010, August. Q&A with conservation biologist Frank Santana [website interview]. Retrieved from MySDScience website:

Welch ME, Long GJ, Berk JW, Getz AH, Gerber GP, Wallace LE. 2011. Twenty-nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in Cyclura carinata, the Turks and Caicos Iguana, a critically endangered island endemic. Conservation Genetics Resources 3(2):209-212. doi:10.1007/s12686-010-9324-0. [PDF]

Wellehan JFX, Johnson AJ, Harrach B, Benko M, Pessier AP, Johnson CM, Garner MM, Childress A, Jacobson ER. 2004. Detection and analysis of six lizard adenoviruses by consensus primer PCR provides further evidence of a reptilian origin for the atadenoviruses. Journal of Virology 78(23):13366-13369. [PDF]

Wellehan JFX, Pessier AP, Archer L, Childress A, Jacobson ER, Tesh RB. 2012. Initial sequence characterization of the rhabdoviruses of squamate reptiles including a novel rhabdovirus from a caiman lizard (Dracaena guianensis). Veterinary Microbiology 158:274-279. [PDF]

Welsh M, Schroeder CR, Vroman DF, Reddin L, Burkhart R, Langer P. 1946. The fate of 1/2 gr/lb body weight of 7 sulfonamides in 7 animal species. In: Proceedings United States Livestock Sanitary Association; 1946 December. p. 213-234. [PDF]

White AM, Swaisgood RR, Czekala N. 2007. Differential investment in sons and daughters: do white rhinoceros mothers favor sons?. Journal of Mammalogy 88(3):632-638. [PDF]

White AM, Swaisgood RR, Czekala N. 2007. Ranging patterns in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum): implications for mating strategies. Animal Behaviour 74:349-356. [PDF]

White AM, Swaisgood RR, Zhang H. 2002. The highs and lows of chemical communication in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca): effect of scent deposition height on signal discrimination. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 51:519-529. [PDF]

White AM, Swaisgood RR, Zhang H. 2003. Chemical communication in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca): the role of age in the signaller and assessor. Journal of Zoology 259:171-178. [PDF]

White AM, Swaisgood RR, Zhang H. 2004. Urinary chemosignals in giant pandas: developmental and seasonal effects on signal discrimination. Journal of Zoology 264:231-238. [PDF]

Whytock RC, Morgan BJ. 2010. The avifauna of the Ebo Forest, Cameroon. Malimbus 32:22-32. [PDF]

Whytock RC, Morgan BJ. 2010. The commercial trade in bushmeat potentially threatens raptor populations in the Ebo forest, Cameroon. Gabar 21(1/2). [PDF]

Wichman HA, Payne CT, Ryder OA, Hamilton MJ, Maltbie M, Baker RJ. 1991. Genomic distribution of heterochromatic sequences in equids: implications to rapid chromosomal evolution. Journal of Heredity 82(5):369-377.

Wickings EJ, Bossi T, Dixson AF. 1993. Reproductive success in the mandrill, Mandrillus sphinx: correlations of male dominance and mating success with paternity as determined by DNA fingerprinting. Journal of Zoology 231:563-574. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1993.tb01938.x

Widdig A, Bercovitch FB, Streich WJ, Sauermann U, Nurnberg P, Krawczak M. 2004. A longitudinal analysis of reproductive skew in male rhesus macaques. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 271:819-826. [PDF]

Widdig A, Nurnberg P, Bercovitch FB, Trefilov A, Berard JB, Kessler MJ, Schmidtke J, Streich WJ, Krawczak M. 2006. Consequences of group fission for the patterns of relatedness among rhesus macaques. Molecular Ecology 15:3825-3832. [PDF]

Widdig A, Nurnberg P, Krawczak M, Streich WJ, Bercovitch FB. 2001. Paternal relatedness and age proximity regulate social relationships among adult female rhesus macaques. PNAS 98(24):13769-13773. [PDF]

Widdig A, Streich WJ, Nurnberg P, Croucher PJP, Bercovitch FB, Krawczak M. 2006. Paternal kin bias in the agonistic interventions of adult female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulata). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 61:205-214. [PDF]

Wiemeyer SN, Scott JM, Anderson MP, Bloom PH, Stafford CJ. 1988. Environmental contaminants in California condors. Journal of Wildlife Management 52(2):238-247. [PDF]

Wiese RJ. 2000. Asian elephants are not self-sustaining in North America. Zoo Biology 19:299-309. [PDF]

Wiese RJ, Gray J. 2010. The one curator - one species challenge. In: Dick G, ed. Biodiversity is life: Proceedings of the 65th WAZA Conference; 2010. Gland: Switzerland: WAZA. p. 4. [PDF]

Wild C, Morgan BJ, Dixson A. 2005. Conservation of drill populations in Bakossiland, Cameroon: historical trends and current status. International Journal of Primatology 26(4):759-773. doi:10.1007/s10764-005-5307-5 [PDF]

Wildt D, Ellis S, Janssen D, Buff J. 2003. Toward more effective reproductive science for conservation. In: Holt WV, Pickard AR, Rodger JC, Wildt DE, eds. Reproductive science and integrated conservation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 1-23. [PDF]

Williams CV, Junge RE, Stalis IH. 2008. Evaluation of iron status in lemurs by analysis of serum iron and ferritin concentrations, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 232(4):578- 585. [PDF]

Williams RM, Benirschke R J. 1976. The chromosomes of four species of falconiformes. Experientia 32:310-311. [PDF]

Williams TM, Dobson GP, Mathieu-Costello O, Morsbach D, Worley MB, Phillips JA. 1997. Skeletal muscle histology and biochemistry in an elite sprinter the African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Journal of Comparative Physiology 167(8):527-535.

Williams TM, Kooyman GL. 1985. Swimming performance and hydrodynamic characteristics of harbor seals Phoca vitulina. Physiological Zoology 58(5):576-589. [PDF]

Willis EL, Kersey DC, Durrant BS, Kouba AJ. 2011. The acute phase protein ceruloplasmin as a non-invasive marker of pseudopregnancy, Pregnancy, and pregnancy loss in the giant panda. PLOS ONE 6(7):e21159. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021159

Willis K, Wiese RJ. 1993. Effect of new founders on retention of gene diversity in captive populations: a formalization of the Nucleus Population concept [Technical Report]. Zoo Biology 12:535-548. [PDF]

Willoughby JR, Fernandez NB, Lamb MC, Ivy JA, Lacy RC, DeWoody JA. 2015. The impacts of inbreeding, drift and selection on genetic diversity in captive breeding populations. Molecular Ecology. 24(1):98-110.

Wilson MH, Kepler CB, Snyder NFR, Derrickson SR, Dein FJ, Wiley JW, Wunderle JM Jr., Lugo AE, Graham DL, Toone WD. 1994. Puerto Rican parrots and potential limitations of the metapopulation approach to species conservation. Conservation Biology 8(1):114-123. [PDF]

Winslow S, Ogden JJ, Maple TL. 1992. Socialization of an adult male lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). International Zoo Yearbook 31(1):222-225.

Winters AJ, Benirschke K, Whalley P, MacDonald PC. 1975. Mosaicism and lack of fluorescence of Y chromosome. Obstetrics and Gynecology 46(3):367-370. [PDF]

Witman P. 1987. Challenges of an avian propagation center. In: AAZPA Regional Proceedings; 1987. p. 302-306. [PDF]

Witman P, Lewins E. 2000. Breeding and hand-rearing Pesquet's parrot Psittrichas fulgidus at the Zoological Society of San Diego. International Zoo Yearbook 37(1):165-171.

Witte CL, Hungerford LL, Papendick R, Stalis IH, Rideout BA. 2007. Factors associated with mycobacteriosis in captive birds. In: Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians; 2007.

Witte CL, Hungerford LL, Papendick R, Stalis IH, Rideout BA. 2008. Investigation of characteristics and factors associated with avian mycobacteriosis in zoo birds. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 20:186-196. [PDF]

Witte CL, Hungerford LL, Papendick R, Stalis IH, Rideout BA. 2010. Investigation of factors predicting disease among zoo birds exposed to avian mycobacteriosis. JAVMA 236(2):211-218. [PDF]

Witte CL, Hungerford LL, Rideout BA. 2009. Association between Mycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis infection among offspring and their dams in nondomestic ruminant species housed in a zoo. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 21:40-47. [PDF]

Witte CL, Lamberski N, Rideout BA, Fields V, Shields-Teare C, et al. 2013. Development of a case definition for clinical feline herpesvirus infection in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) housed in zoos. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 44(3): 634:644. doi:10.1638/2012-0183R.1 [PDF]

Witte CL, Sredl MJ, Kane AS, Hungerford LL. 2008. Epidemiologic analysis of factors associated with local disappearances of native ranid frogs in Arizona. Conservation Biology 22(2):375-383. [PDF]

Wohnus JF, Benirschke K. 1966. Chromosome analysis of four species of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus, Tamarinus mystax, Tamarinus nigricollis, Cebuella pygmaea). Cytogenetics 5:94-105. doi:10.1159/000129888

Wolfe, BA, Lamberski N. 2012. Approaches to management and care of the neonatal nondomestic ruminant. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice 15(2):265-277. doi:10.1016/j.cvex.2012.02.004

Wong PBY, Wiley EO, Johnson WE, Ryder OA, O'Brien SJ, Haussler C, Koepfli K-P, Houck ML, Perelman P, Mastromonaco G, Bentley AC, Venkatesh B, Zhang Y-P, Murphy RW, G10KCOS. 2012. Tissue sampling methods and standards for vertebrate genomics. GigaScience 2012;1:8. doi:10.1186/2047-217X-1-8. [PDF]

Woo KL, Hunt M, Harper D, Nelson NJ, Daugherty CH, Bell BD. 2005. Acquisition of a learned operant and critical flicker-fusion rate in tuatara (Sphenodon) [abstract]. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 32(3):232.

Woodruff DA, Ryder OA. 1986. Genetic characterization and conservation of endangered species: Arabian oryx and Pere David's deer. Isozyme Bulletin 19:33.

Woodworth BL, Lieberman AA, Nelson JT, Fretz JS. 2009. Puaiohi. In: Pratt TK, Atkinson CT, Banko PC, Jacobi JD, Woodworth BL, eds. Conservation biology of Hawaiian forest birds. New Haven (CT): Yale University Press. p. 499-512. [PDF]

Work TM, Massey JG, Rideout BA, Gardiner CH, Ledig DB, Kwok OCH, Dubey JP. 2000. Toxoplasmosis in free-ranging Hawaiian crows (Corvus hawaiiensis). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 36(2):205-212. [PDF]

Worley KE. 1999. Summing it up: the 4th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment. Shape of Enrichment 8(4):14-15.

Worley KE, Hare VJ. 1995. An overview of the 1995 Environmental Enrichment conference. Shape of Enrichment 4(4):6-12.

Worley MB. 1988. Feline coronavirus. In: Appel, MJG, ed. Virus infections of carnivores. New York: Elsevier Science. p. 431-436. [PDF]

Worley MB. 1993. Herpes associated lymphoma in a slow loris Nycticebus coucang. In: Proceedings AAZV; 1993. p. 120-122.

Worley MB. 1993. Molecular biology and infectious diseases: present and future trends in diagnosis. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 24(3):336-345. [PDF]

Worley MB. 1995. Testing methods for feline immunodeficiency virus in nondomestic felids. In: Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the AAZV the Wildlife Disease Association and the American Associeation of Wildlife Veterinarians; 1995.

Worley MB. 2000. Retrovirus infections in wild mammals. In: Williams ES, Barker IK, eds. Infectious diseases of wild mammals. 3rd ed. Ames (IA): Iowa State University Press. p. 213-222.

Worley MB, Lowenstine LL, Osborn KG, Allen JL, Oosterhuis JE. 1995. An apparent epizootic of necrotizing pharyngitis and mucosal ulceration in the Mhorr gazelle. In: Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the AAZV the Wildlife Disease Association and the American Associeation of Wildlife Veterinarians; 1995.

Worley MB, Rideout B, Shima A, Janssen D. 1993. Opportunistic infections cancer and hematologic disorders associated with retrovirus infection in the koala. In: Proceedings of the AAZV Annual Conference; 1993; St. Louis: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. p. 181-182.

Worley MB, Shima A. 1991. Isolation of a herpesvirus from short-term lymphocyte cultures of the slow loris. In: Proceedings of the AAZV Annual Conference; 1991. p. 173-174.

Worley MB, Stalis IH. 2002. Detection of virus-like particles in the liver of black and white ruffed lemurs with hepatitis. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38(2):258-265. [PDF]

Wright PC, Erhart EM, Tecot S, Baden AL, Arrigo-Nelson SJ, Herrera J, Morelli TL, Blanco MB, Deppe A, Atsalis S, Johnson S, Ratelolahy F, Tan C, Zohdy S. 2012. Long-term lemur research at Centre Valbio, Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. In: Kappeler PM, Watts DP, eds. Long-term field studies of primates. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. p. 67-100. [PDF]

Wright PC, Johnson SE, Irwin MT, Jacobs R, Schlichting P, Lehman S, Louis EE Jr, Arrigo-Nelson SJ, Raharison J-L, Rafalirarison RR, Razafindratsita V, Ratsimbazafy J, Ratelolahy FJ, Dolch R, Tan C. 2008. The crisis of the critically endangered greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus). Primate Conservation 23:5-17. [PDF]

Wurster DH, Benirschke K. 1967. Chromosome studies in some deer the springbok and the pronghorn, with notes on placentation in deer. Cytologia 32:273-285. [PDF]

Wurster DH, Benirschke K. 1968. Comparative cytogenetic studies in the order carnivora. Chromosoma 24(3):336-382.

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